Since the discovery of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) it has been widely applied in fluorescence microscopy as a tool to study proteins in their native cellular environment. However, GFP has several intrinsic limitations, such as low signal intensity, fast photo bleaching and signal loss after chemical treatment. The GFP-Booster, which is composed of an anti-GFP Nanobody conjugated to a fluorescent dye, enhances, stabilizes, and re-establishes the signal of GFP fusion proteins in immunofluorescence. In this blog, we answer why the small size of the GFP-Booster is of advantage compared to regular antibodies in immunofluorescence and provide an overview of the GFP variants bound by the GFP-Booster as well as the available dyes.
The high stability of the GFP-Trap® enables its use in virtually any lysis and wash buffer. Therefore, it is possible to remove unwanted proteins, reduce background in your IP, or apply the GFP-Trap in applications requiring harsh buffer conditions. The GFP-Trap bound to the GFP-fusion protein can, for example, be used in ubiquitination assays or in the presence of Urea, which is used for the total inactivation of any phosphatase activity in Co-IP/MS for phosphorylation studies.
Flag®-tag (or DYKDDDDK-tag) is a commonly used short peptide tag for multiple applications such as immunoprecipitation (IP), protein purification, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting (WB). In this blog, we provide an introduction to the IP of Flag®-tagged proteins from cellular extracts. Using our DYKDDDDK Fab-Trap™ as an example, we elaborate on the different steps of IP and highlight the controls that help you achieve the best result in your experiment.
Different antibody formats can be used in IP applications, including full-length antibodies, Fab-fragments, and Nanobodies. ChromoTek’s Fab-Trap™ is an IP reagent based on an antibody Fab-fragment. In this blog, we elaborate on the basic principle and advantages of Fab-fragment based reagents for IP. More simply, we ask “Why is the Fab-Trap™ Fab-ulous?”
Immunoprecipitation (IP) is a technique used to isolate a protein from a cellular extract. The protein of interest (POI) is recognized by a specific antibody (Ab) conjugated to beads. Different antibody formats can be used in IP, e.g., a full-length Ab, a Fab-fragment, or a Nanobody. Below, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the different Ab formats.
ChromoTek and Proteintech recently launched Nanobodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These Nanobody clones were originally developed by the group of Ulrich Rothbauer at the Natural and Medical Sciences Institute, Reutlingen, Germany. In our guest blog, Teresa Wagner and Ulrich Rothbauer discuss the development of these Nanobodies and why Nanobodies are versatile alternatives to classical antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 research.
Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) describes the isolation of a protein and its binding partners from a cell extract using a Nanobody or antibody that is bound to beads. The protein, that directly interacts with the Nanobody, or antibody beads is called “bait”. The binding partner that is indirectly precipitated is called “prey”.